By Tomek Polański —

RxJava: subscribeOn vs observeOn

3 minutes read

One of the strongest aspects of RxJava is the simple way to schedule work on a desired thread using either subscribeOn or observeOn. While they seem simple enough at a glance, understanding how they work is crucial to achieving your desired threading assignment.


This method simply changes the thread of all operators further downstream (in the calls that come after). Let’s assume code is run from a UI thread:


One of the most frequent misconceptions is that observeOn also acts upstream, but really it acts only downstream - things that happen after the observeOn call - unlike subscribeOn.


This only influences the thread that is used when the Observable is subscribed to and it will stay on it downstream.

just("Some String") // Computation
.map(str -> str.length()) // Computation
.map(length -> 2 * length) // Computation
.subscribeOn(Schedulers.computation()) // -- changing the thread
.subscribe(number -> Log.d("", "Number " + number)); // Computation

Position does not matter

subscribeOn can be put in any place in the stream because it affects only the time of subscription. For example, the code from above is equal to this one:

just("Some String") // Computation
.subscribeOn(Schedulers.computation()) // note the different order
.map(str -> str.length()) // Computation
.map(length -> 2 * length) // Computation
.subscribe(number -> Log.d("", "Number " + number)); // Computation

Methods that obey the contact with subscribeOn

The most basic example is Observable.create. All the work specified inside create body will be run on the thread specified in subscribeOn.

Another example is Observable.just, Observable.from or Observable.range. It is important to note that all of those methods accept values, so do not use blocking methods to create those values, as subscribeOn won’t affect it! If you want to use a blocking function, use Observable.defer as it accepts functions that will be evaluated lazily:

Observable.defer(() -> Observable.just(blockingMethod()));

One important fact is that subscribeOn does not work with Subjects. (We will return to this in a future post).

Multiple subscribeOn

If there are multiple instances of subscribeOn in the stream, only the first one will be used:

just("Some String")
.map(str -> str.length())
.subscribeOn(Schedulers.computation()) // changing to computation
.subscribeOn( // won’t change the thread to IO
.subscribe(number -> Log.d("", "Number " + number));

Subscribe and subscribeOn

People think that subscribeOn has something to do with Observable.subscribe, but really it does not have anything special to do with it. Remember, it only affects the subscription phase!

Knowing how subscribeOn and observeOn work, makes the Rx code much more easy to reason with. This understanding will allow you to use it correctly which should give you predictable results in your threading allocations.